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They are known as the world’s highest-production dairy animals. The Dutch and German breeders bred and oversaw the development of the breed with the goal of obtaining animals that could best use grass , the area’s most abundant resource.
Over the centuries, the result was a high-producing, black-and-white dairy cow. The Holstein-Friesian is the most widespread cattle breed in the world; it is present in more than countries.
After about 8, Friesians black pied Germans had been imported, disease problems in Europe led to the cessation of exports to markets abroad. In Europe, the breed is used for milk in the north, and meat in the south. Since , European national development has led to cattle breeding and dairy products becoming increasingly regionalized.
This change led to the need for specialized animals for dairy and beef production. Until this time, milk and beef had been produced from dual-purpose animals. The breeds, national derivatives of the Dutch Friesian, had become very different animals from those developed by breeders in the United States, who used Holsteins only for dairy production.
Breeders imported specialized dairy Holsteins from the United States to cross with the European black and whites. For this reason, in modern usage, “Holstein” is used to describe North or South American stock and its use in Europe, particularly in the North. Crosses between the two are described by the term “Holstein-Friesian”. Holsteins have distinctive markings, usually black and white or red and white in colour, typically exhibiting piebald patterns.
Red factor causes this unique colouring. This colour is produced by white hairs mixed with the black hairs giving the cow a bluish tint. This colouring is also known as ‘blue roan’ in some farm circles. They are famed for their high dairy production, averaging 22, pounds 10, kg of milk per year.
Of this milk, pounds 3. A healthy calf weighs 40 to 50 kg 75— lb or more at birth. A mature Holstein cow typically weighs — kg — lb , and stands — cm 58—65 in tall at the shoulder. The gestation period is about nine and a half months. Near BC, a displaced group of people from Hesse migrated with their cattle to the shores of the North Sea near the Frisii tribe, occupying the island of Batavia , between the Rhine , Maas , and Waal. Historical records suggest these cattle were black, and the Friesian cattle at this time were “pure white and light coloured”.
Crossbreeding may have led to the foundation of the present Holstein-Friesian breed, as the cattle of these two tribes from then are described identically in historical records. The people were known for their care and breeding of cattle. The Frisii, preferring pastoral pursuits to warfare, paid a tax of ox hides and ox horns to the Roman government, whereas the Batavii furnished soldiers and officers to the Roman army ; these fought successfully in the various Roman wars.
The Frisii bred the same strain of cattle unadulterated for 2, years, except from accidental circumstances. In CE, floods produced the Zuiderzee , a formed body of water that had the effect of separating the cattle breeders of the modern day Frisians into two groups.
The western group occupied West Friesland , now part of North Holland; the eastern occupied the present provinces of Friesland and Groningen, also in the Netherlands.
The rich polder land in the Netherlands is unsurpassed for the production of grass, cattle, and dairy products. Between the 13th and 16th centuries, the production of butter and cheese was enormous.
Historic records describe heavy beef cattle, weighing from 2, to 3, pounds each. The breeders had the goal of producing as much milk and beef as possible from the same animal. The selection , breeding and feeding have been carried out with huge success.
Inbreeding was not tolerated, and distinct families never arose, although differences in soil in different localities produced different sizes and variations. Up to the 18th century, the British Isles imported Dutch cattle, using them as the basis of several breeds in England and Scotland. The eminent David Low recorded, “the Dutch breed was especially established in the district of Holderness , on the north side of the Humber ; northward through the plains of Yorkshire.
The finest dairy cattle in England Further north in the Tees area, farmers imported continental cattle from the Netherlands and German territories on the Elbe. Low wrote, “Of the precise extent of these early importations we are imperfectly informed, but that they exercised a great influence on the native stock appears from this circumstance, that the breed formed by the mixture became familiarly known as the Dutch or Holstein breed”.
Holstein-Friesians were found throughout the rich lowlands of the Netherlands, northwestern provinces of Germany, Belgium and northern France. The breed did not become established in Great Britain at the time, nor was it used in the islands of Jersey or of Guernsey , which bred their own special cattle named after the islands.
Their laws prohibited using imports from the continent for breeding purposes. Canadian breeders sent a gift of three yearling bulls to help establish the breed.
The breed was developed slowly up to the s, after which there was an explosion in its popularity, and additional animals were imported. More recently, the two societies merged in to establish Holstein UK. The above statistics are for all dairy animals possessing passports at the time of the survey, i.
Holstein in this instance, and indeed in all modern discussion, refers to animals traced from North American bloodlines, while Frisian refers to indigenous European black and white cattle. Criteria for inclusion in the Supplementary Register i. If the breeding records show that one parent is of a breed other than Holstein-Friesian, Holstein, or Friesian, then such parent must be a purebred animal fully registered in a herd book of a dairy breed society recognized by the Society.
For inclusion in the Pure Holstein or Friesian herd book, a heifer or bull calf from a cow or heifer in Class B of the Supplementary Register and by a bull registered or dual registered in the Herd Book or the Supplementary Register, and containing Black and white cattle from Europe were introduced into the US from to They probably brought cattle with them from their native land and crossed them with cattle purchased in the colony.
For many years afterwards, the cattle here were called Dutch cattle and were renowned for their milking qualities. The first recorded imports were more than years later, consisting of six cows and two bulls. John Lincklaen of Cazenovia. A settler described them thus, “the cows were of the size of oxen, their colors clear black and white in large patches; very handsome”.
In , a bull and two cows were imported by the Hon. William Jarvis for his farm at Wethersfield, Vermont. About the year , another importation was made by Herman Le Roy, a part of which was sent into the Genesee River valley. The rest were kept near New York City.
Still later, an importation was made into Delaware. No records were kept of the descendants of these cattle. Their blood was mingled and lost in that of the native cattle. The first permanent introduction of this breed was due to the perseverance of Hon. Winthrop W. Chenery, of Belmont, Massachusetts. The animals of his first two importations, and their offspring, were destroyed by the government in Massachusetts because of a contagious disease.
He made a third importation in This was followed in by an importation for the Hon. Gerrit S. These two importations, by Hon.
William A. Russell, of Lawrence, Mass. William S. After about 8, Holsteins had been imported, a cattle disease broke out in Europe and importation ceased. In the late 19th century, there was enough interest among Friesian breeders to form associations to record pedigrees and maintain herd books.
These associations merged in , to found the Holstein-Friesian Association of America. Perhaps the most famous Holstein was Pauline Wayne , which served from to as an official presidential pet to the 27th President of the United States , William Howard Taft.
Pauline Wayne lived and grazed on the White House lawn and provided milk for the first family. Pauline Wayne was the last presidential pet cow. The average actual production for all USA Holstein herds that were enrolled in production-testing programs and eligible for genetic evaluations was 23, pounds 10, kg of milk, pounds kg of butterfat, and pounds kg of protein per year.
This has been decreasing regularly in recent years and now stands at around 2. The current national Holstein milk production leader is Bur-Wall Buckeye Gigi EX 3E, which produced 74, pounds 33, kg of milk in days, completing her record in The considerable advantage, compared to the UK, for example, can be explained by several factors:.
The golden age of Friesian breeding occurred during the last 50 years, greatly helped lately by embryo transfer techniques, which permitted a huge multiplication of bulls entering progeny testing of elite, bull-mother cows. Friesian bull, Osborndale Ivanhoe , b. His descendants included:. The cloned calf was born 21 years and 5 months after Starbuck’s own birth date and just under 2 years after his death 17 September The calf weighed Starbuck II is derived from frozen fibroblast cells, recovered one month before the death of Starbuck.
A huge controversy in the UK in January linked the cloning company Smiddiehill and Humphreston Farm owned by father-and-son team Michael and Oliver Eaton also owners of the large, Birmingham-based stone product business, BS Eaton with a calf that was cloned from a cow in Canada.
Despite their efforts to block the farm from view of the press, news cameras broadcast this as breaking news among many of the country’s top news stations. Since then, this calf had been rumored to have been put down to protect the owners, the Eatons, from invasions of the press.
While interest in increasing production through indexing and lifetime profit scores had a huge increase in Holstein bloodlines in the UK, proponents of the traditional British Friesian did not see things that way, and maintain these criteria do not reflect the true profitability or the production of the Friesian cow. Friesian breeders say modern conditions in the UK, similar to the s through to the s, with low milk price and the need for extensive, low-cost systems for many farmers, may ultimately cause producers to re-examine the attributes of the British Friesian.
This animal came to dominate the UK dairy cow population during these years, with exports of stock and semen to many countries throughout the world. Although the idea of “dual-purpose” animals has arguably become outmoded, the fact remains that the Friesian is eminently suitable for many farms, particularly where grazing is a main feature of the system.